Cécile Morrisson

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The topics covered are listed in Table 2 and were derived from focus groups with publishers and ECRs and informed by a literature review. In this paper we concentrate on what we regard to be the broad findings that shed light on how ECRs are changing the scholarly communication market.

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They are even more fixated with publishing papers than their seniors because of the precarious employment position they find themselves in.

Papers are the ultimate reputational currency and provide a passport to the promised land - tenured work.

This biggest and most specific list is that which governs every publishing move of Polish ECRs and is currently under review. Peer review 9ECRs are seasoned researchers with around half of our sample having experience of peer reviewing, which probably explains their general, but not complete, support for peer review.

They tend to prefer double-blind review because of the anonymity it affords, something that is felt necessary as they would not want to be viewed as junior researchers as that might disadvantage them.

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For similar reasons they are not so keen on open peer review either, which they consider too risky and dangerous for them because it places them directly in the spotlight. Furthermore, this form of review would attract what they regard as unwelcome, additional comment from a larger and unknown army of critics.

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ECRs are also of the opinion that open review makes it more difficult to reject papers because it would mute reviewer criticism. With so much at stake their jobs and future ECRs are inevitably very wary when it comes to peer review. They argue that they are rated and indeed everything is rated notions of TripAdvisor so why not reviewers?

Despite having issues with reviewers ECRs have no complaints over publisher control of the peer review system.

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ResearchGate is attracting the greatest interest and its social and gaming characteristics are liked by a good number of ECRs. It is also proving a good source for finding collaborators. LinkedIn, surprisingly perhaps, and Twitter mainly a means for alerting people of new articles, conferences etc.

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Open access OA 12Characteristically, Éco slim prof morelli like the idea and principles behind OA as it fits their views on openness and sharing, but it is rarely a priority when it comes to choosing a journal in which to publish their papers.

They and their more senior co-authors are very pragmatic and opt for journals that will benefit their reputation most and these are high impact factors journals and they tend not to be typically gold OA. Given that ECRs are the last in the queue when it comes to obtaining resources in terms of accessing funding there is the inevitable disquiet about high author charges making the playing field uneven between those that can pay tenured researchers and those that cannot ECRs.

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Regarding green open access—archiving in repositories—ECRs are completely non-plussed, they typically see that as a job for others librarians were mentioned and also do not see any reputational or career progression advantage depositing. Interestingly, they are not really aware of institutional or funding mandates requiring them to deposit.

Open science OS 13We have already talked about two components of OS, open peer review and open access, and we have seen a gulf between attitudes and practices, so what about the broad concept itself and the other major component of OS, open data, for instance? As the topic falls into the openness and transparency category you might expect it to have much traction with ECRs.

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But, again, while they are mostly warm towards the concept although not so in France where researchers are either not well informed or almost antagonistic towards the conceptthis turns out not to be the case and this might be partly put down to the fact that it is still early days in the gestation of the idea and practice. Thus, some think blogs, social media etc.

There are country variations, though, and as mentioned earlier OS is barely known in France and French ECRs and have a mistrust the agenda. Given all this, there is a need to be wary of questionnaire studies of the topic, where explanation and guidance cannot be provided, as is the case with deep interviews.

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Well, ECRs were not so interested in open data and software because many would like to exploit their data to the full themselves for their publications and reputation and not give it away where it could be misused or used more profitably the later a case of the competitive instinct kicking in. Collaboration and sharing 16Collaboration and sharing are much mentioned by ECRs as central to the way they want to run their scholarly lives and it is not simply a case of warm words as ECRs genuinely believe this.

But they do feel their wings clipped a bit by traditional reputational requirements, which offer no rewards in respect to collaborative and sharing activities employing such tools as Éco slim prof morelli, Twitter and ResearchGate.

Nevertheless, they still use these tools, although not as much as they would like, especially for finding researchers to collaborate with or talk to. Metrics 17Metrics, if they are citation based, are, of course, something ECRs are very interested in because they, especially impact factors, are the means by which they benchmark their success and blac chyna perdre du poids their reputational standing.

Altmetics, on the other hand, is an example of a topic which is widely trialled by conferences and university research administration departments, but about which ECRs exhibit little awareness or interest. Again, this could well be because they have not caught up with these metrics yet, but it is also a case that they are not widely used and accepted by researchers or university system for reputation. Transformations 18The traditional scholarly communication and reward system has been sitting on a potential time-bomb of digital innovation and social media for around a decade now and signs that it might explode anytime soon could be the runaway success of ResearchGate, a pure player perte de poids tracy peart and wholly digital with éco slim prof morelli industry antecedents built entirely along social media and gaming lines which has a rapidly expanding following éco slim prof morelli 16 million researchers.

So, ECRs were asked whether they could see the field transformed down the line five years was the timeline given and, if so, what would be the transformations. Now, interestingly, ECRs could see the opportunities to change and the benefits of so-doing.

It was as though they had experienced a fast-track year which had aged and seasoned them. They had obtained greater exposure to scholarly initiatives, which had certainly been ramped up, most notably by the EU and had experienced increased institutional pressures as universities attempt to raise their reputational game. They also had had time to observe and note what can be useful to them in their career.

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This all meant that their behaviour was likely to change. Thus, if they saw something that they once criticized could fast track them along their careers then they were going to adopt this practice.

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There was also a sense that they had learnt something from our previous interview and were just more aware. ECRs talk about the desire for changing but no changes occur in practice and none.

Take the case of Chinese ECRs, for instance, where two-thirds saw job changes. There was widespread growth in active usage, especially of ResearchGate previously ECRs were more voyeurs ; more awareness of digital visibility opportunities they provide; and a stronger belief they are the future.

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Covering the career aims, ambitions and motivations held by ECRs. This result can again be put down to the turbulent environment ECRs inhabit. There appeared to be a general tightening up of the rules surrounding authorship, especially regarding the positioning of authors and the role of corresponding authors e.

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This was less the éco slim prof morelli in the UK and US and is, probably, explained by the greater maturity of these two countries, meaning that such things were long-settled. OA is becoming more acceptable and this seems not so much to do with mandates, but much more down to pragmatic thinking, with ECRs being swayed by the claims regarding the benefits of greater outreach, increased citations and possibly, imagined speed of publication that OA publications bring with them.

ECRs: a were more selective in accepting reviews and more proactive in obtaining them; b showed more disquiet about the process, especially so in China and Malaysia, because of a flurry of recent retractions in these parts. The problems that arose were put at the door of the enormous pressures on researchers to publish.

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Social media has obtained a low-level acceptance from many ECRs. There is more use of twitter, Facebook and LinkedIn and mainly for dissemination and outreach purposes, which are thought to be very important by ECRs. Smartphones are not making much scholarly headway either, except in China.